Palynological approach of settlement and agro-pastoral activities dynamics in the Aubrac / E. Faure
Palynological approach of settlement and agro-pastoral activities dynamics in the Aubrac massif (Massif Central, France). Élodie FAURE. In "La construction des territoires montagnards : exploitation des ressources et mobilité des pratiques", 2e International Workshop on archaeology of european mountain landscape, organisé par les laboratoires GEODE, FRAMESPA, GEOLAB et Chrono-Environnement. Université Toulouse 2-Le Mirail, 8-11 octobre 2009. [seconde journée]
This communication presents some preliminary results of a research focusing on the anthropisation in the Aubrac Massif (Massif Central, France). This study is pursuing a series of work initiated by the laboratory of historical botany of Marseille in the 80’s. It has been recently included in the Eclipse project and is also in the continuity of a research carried out in the PCR “The Aubrac mountain during the Middle Ages”, directed by L. Fau (Ministry of Culture). The preliminary data are supported by five sedimentary recordings providing from peat bogs (Vergne Noire, Trois Airelles, Source du Roc, all in the Aveyron department, Roustières and the lake of Born, in the Lozère department).
Comparison of different pollen recordings highlights local variations and specificities. Indeed, if the
landscapes of the Lozère part of the Aubrac area seem to have been fashioned quite early by man, this doesn’t seem to be the same in the Aveyron part, nearby the edge of the plateau.
Open landscapes seem to be noticeable in the eastern part since Antiquity (arborean pollen drop, developpment of Cerealia type, first occurrences of Secale and simultaneous occurrences of anthropogenic pollen indicators like Urticaceae, Rumex acetosa/acetosella, Plantago lanceolata...), whereas forest dominates more on the west (between 60 and 80% of beech at the same time on the Vergne Noire site for exemple) at least until the end of the Early Middle Ages. This time difference and these disparities underline many questions, in particular with regard to the methods of soil use and local resource management.