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Nombre de programmes trouvés : 13916
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3ème session : Emergence de significations communes et apprentissage des solidarités

Alors qu’il est devenu banal de parler de la faiblesse de la société civile en Russie, une série de mobilisations sociales se sont produites depuis 2005. Sans que l’on puisse parler de mouvements de masse, la Russie voit néanmoins se développer plusieurs fronts de protestation, mouvements de grèves et autres conflits du travail courant 2007, et d’autres plus modestes mais inscrits dans la durée sous forme de groupes d’initiatives citoyennes. Ces faits posent la question des mobilisations de leurs acteurs et du sens de ces mouvements dans un pays dont les structures institutionnelles sont réputées défavorables à l’émergence d’initiatives citoyennes ...
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le (0s)

4ème session : Mobilisations sociales, pouvoir et politique

Alors qu’il est devenu banal de parler de la faiblesse de la société civile en Russie, une série de mobilisations sociales se sont produites depuis 2005. Sans que l’on puisse parler de mouvements de masse, la Russie voit néanmoins se développer plusieurs fronts de protestation, mouvements de grèves et autres conflits du travail courant 2007, et d’autres plus modestes mais inscrits dans la durée sous forme de groupes d’initiatives citoyennes. Ces faits posent la question des mobilisations de leurs acteurs et du sens de ces mouvements dans un pays dont les structures institutionnelles sont réputées défavorables à l’émergence d’initiatives citoyennes ...
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Conférences

le (28m6s)

Global Climate Change: Past and Future

My presentation will begin with a review of the now-solid evidence for a human influence on the climate of recent decades. Such evidence includes instrumental measurements available for the past two centuries, paleoclimate observations spanning more than a millennium, and comparisons of the predictions from computer models with observed patterns of climate change. I will then address how the study of paleoclimate can inform our assessments of the potential future impacts of human-induced climate change.
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Conférences

le (31m27s)

From Climate Models to Earth System Models

Complex climate models that describe the evolution of the coupled ocean atmosphere cryosphere system are gradually extended to “non physical” components of the earth system, and account for land vegetation dynamics, ocean biology, global biogeochemistry and atmospheric chemistry. In the future, these models will have to better represent the potential feedbacks with society and therefore to couple the natural bio-physical components with the socio-economic system. The paper will review the present status of complex climate and Earth system models, report some preliminary attempts to include societal aspects, and highlight challenges for future research.
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Conférences

le (15m57s)

Cross-Disciplinary International Research on Land-Atmosphere Interactions

The presentation will focus on scientific issues of importance to global change and climate change research: interactions of reactive trace and greenhouse gases between the biosphere and atmosphere in combination with boundary layer processes, importance of land use and land cover for climate studies, and aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate interactions. These issues are of vital importance and research is carried out under the auspices of the multi- and cross-disciplinary Integrated Land Ecosystem-Atmosphere 81 Processes Study (iLEAPS), a core project of the International Geosphere- Biosphere Programme (IGBP) in collaboration with other international research organizations. The interactions between the biosphere and the atmosphere mediated by ...
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Conférences

le (30m18s)

Borehole Climatology and Model Simulations: Steps to Integrated Assessment

Progress in understanding climate variability through the last millennium leans on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Exercises blending both approaches present a great potential for answering questions relevant both for the simulation and reconstruction of past climate, and depend on the specific peculiarities of proxies and methods involved in climate reconstructions, as well as the realism and limitations of model simulations. This talk addresses the use of millennial simulations with the ECHO-g model to explore three main issues that group most of the interaction between model and geothermal efforts: the use of models as a validation tool for borehole climate reconstructions; ...
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Conférences

le (37m35s)

Are European Ecosystems Vulnerable to Climate Change

The relatively simple question posed by this title turns out to be complicated in its implementation, for a number of reasons: First, ecosystems have changed in response to changing climate throughout history - however this has not normally been qualified as “vulnerability”. Second, most changes in 26 ecosystems have multiple forcings, climate change being only one of them. Third, whether changes in ecosystem functioning qualify as “vulnerability” depends largely on the human point of view. Resolving the issue is very urgent today, because it is indisputable that rapid changes are taking place and that some of these are considered “negative ...
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Conférences

le (22m8s)

Regional Climate Change and Extremes

Global coupled ocean-atmosphere models, driven by greenhouse gas concentrations according to several hypotheses for the next century, have been used in the last IPCC-AR4 report to depict possible future climates of the planet. It will be shown that a regional atmosphere model is able to represent with some fidelity the different climates over France, thanks to a realistic representation of the main mountains. Local extreme phenomena like intense precipitations are better taken into account. Regional models are an essential link between physical hypotheses (e.g. 2x versus 3x CO2 concentration) and needs from the impact community.
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Conférences

le (45m11s)

A Roadmap to Assess the Economic Cost of Climate Change with an Application to Hurricanes in the United States

This talk presents a methodological roadmap to assess macro-economic damages from climate change. To do so, it explores a single manifestation of climate change in a single location: an increase in hurricane intensity in the United States. The presentation starts from a global climate change, and follows the causal chain to total macro-economic losses. First, the large-scale change is downscaled to a spatial scale pertinent to investigate socio-economic impacts. Here, the Emanuel hurricane model is used to estimate present and future local landfall probabilities. Second, a statistical analysis of historical landfalls is used to translate these probability changes into direct ...
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Conférences

le (10m57s)

Food demand, Productivity Growth and the Spatial Distribution of Land and Water use: A Global Modelling Approach

Nowadays, human society appropriates about one quarter of total net primary production of the terrestrial biosphere. Production of food, energy and materials, and the related use of land and water account for crucial components and interactions in the Earth System. However, rising food, energy and material demand, climate change and ambitious mitigation policies will enhance the competition for land and water. While the combined impacts of these drivers are still highly uncertain, global land-use patterns will change in the future, reacting to these pressures. Projecting their future development is important to study both, their impacts on the Earth System as ...
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