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le (5m54s)

2.3. The genetic code

Genes code for proteins. What is the correspondence betweenthe genes, DNA sequences, and the structure of proteins? The correspondence isthe genetic code. Proteins have indeedsequences of amino acids. There are 20 amino acidsin the living world. They can be named by a single letter,3 letters or their full name. It means that a protein can berepresented by a sequence of letters in a 20 letter alphabet. Let's come back again on thiscorrespondence between gene and protein. Genes are regions of DNA. These regions are first transcribedinto RNA and then RNA into proteins. And proteins’ sequences of aminoacids fold into 3D structures. Like here, some helixes. Translation is the process whichgoes from RNA to ...
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le (6m7s)

1.7. DNA walk

We will now design a more graphical algorithm which is called "the DNA walk". We shall see what does it mean "DNA walk". Walk on to DNA. Something like that, yes. But first, just have a look again at the typical, also quite short sequence of DNA, a long text offour letters: A, C, G, T, T and so on. When the first sequence of DNA were obtained, the idea of using computers very quickly emerged but people didn't know exactly what to do with this sequence of characters. Again, there is a meaning behind the sequence because it is genetic information. It means it is the information ...
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le (6m10s)

2.4. A translation algorithm

We have seen that the genetic codeis a correspondence between the DNA or RNA sequences and aminoacid sequences that is proteins. Our aim here is to design atranslation algorithm, we make thehypothesis that the genetic codehas been implemented as an array as presented in the lastslide of the previous session. We have seen transcriptions and translationsfrom DNA to RNA and proteins. An important thing to notice hereis that most of the time computer scientists and bioinformaticiansjust forget about RNA. When they speak about translating,they say translating from DNA to proteins directly becausethe differences between the DNA and RNA is only T and U sowhat they do is this ...
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