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Nombre de programmes trouvés : 747
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le (5m0s)

5.4. The UPGMA algorithm

We know how to fill an array with the values of the distances between sequences, pairs of sequences which are available in the file. This array of distances will be the input of our algorithm for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. The name of this algorithm israther complicated but the method itself is rather simple,too simple indeed. We will see that. The name standsfor Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean, wewill understand these terms along the presentationof the algorithm. The algorithm starts withan array of distances. Let's take this very simpleexample, it implies seven species and here we have the values of thedistances between these different sequences associated with a species. As you ...
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le (8m30s)

5.6. The diversity of bioinformatics algorithms

In this course, we have seen a very little set of bioinformatic algorithms. There exist numerous various algorithms in bioinformatics which deal with a large span of classes of problems. For example, read assembly. We have seen how NGS sequencers produce large sets of reads, small sequences which overlap. And the problem of assembly isto use the overlap in order to ordering this read and reconstructing the whole genomic sequence. This is the overlapping and you see that you can use this overlap to get a longer sequence. Of course, here the example issimple: you have to imagine a set of millions of reads to beassembled into genomic sequences of millions or ...
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le (7m26s)

5.7. The application domains in microbiology

Bioinformatics relies on many domains of mathematics and computer science. Of course, algorithms themselves on character strings are important in bioinformatics, we have seen them. Algorithms and trees, for example,for reconstructing phylogenetic trees, algorithms on networks toreconstruct gene interaction networks, metabolic networks and maybe to simulate the dynamics of the time. We have seen also the implicationof probability and statistics. The implication of optimizationmethods, for example, for the computation of the optimalalignment of a pair of sequences. Constraint satisfaction is used forpredicting molecule structure. Automata and formal grammarswhich are some exotic parts of computer science are also usefulin bioinformatics, the same for signal processing. And soother domains may be listed here. We also ...
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Conférences

le (1h36m30s)

LA MISSION PHILAE / ROSETTA : PREMIÈRE EXPLORATION COMÉTAIRE IN SITU

Conférence de l'Institut d'astrophysique de Paris (IAP) présentée par Jean-Pierre Bibring  (astrophysicien à l'Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale), le 3 mars 2015 à l'IAP.Jean-Pierre Bibring est le responsable scientifique français de Philae, l'atterisseur de la sonde Rosetta. Rosetta est une mission de l’ESA avec des contributions de ses États membres et de la NASA. Philae, l’atterrisseur de Rosetta, est fourni par un consortium dirigé par le DLR, le MPS, le CNES et l'ASI. Rosetta est la première mission dans l'histoire à se mettre en orbite autour d’une comète, à l’escorter autour du ...
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Conférences

le (1h11m11s)

Computers are Not Omnipotent

In 1984, TIME magazine quoted the chief editor of a certain software publication as saying: "Put the right kind of software into a computer, and it will do whatever you want it to. There may be limits on what you can do with the machines themselves, but there are no limits on what you can do with software." This talk will survey results obtained over the last 80 years by mathematicians, logicians and computer scientists, which disprove this ignorance-based statement in a sweeping and fundamental way. We shall discuss problems that are provably non-computable, as well as ...
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Conférences

le (1h53m33s)

Lire "Le Capital" de Thomas Piketty

« Lire Le capital de Thomas Piketty » : c’est le titre du dossier que les Annales publient dans le no 1-2015, en écho au formidable succès rencontré dans le monde entier par le livre de l’économiste français. À l’occasion de sa parution, la revue propose un débat qui réunira autour de Thomas Piketty des chercheurs invités et des membres de la rédaction afin de mettre en perspective les propositions de l’ouvrage. Dans le prolongement du dossier, il s’agira de poser la question de la place que tient aujourd’hui l’économie au sein des sciences sociales, en ...
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