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le (5m38s)

2.10. How to find genes?

Getting the sequence of the genome is only the beginning, as I explained, once you have the sequence what you want to do is to locate the gene, to predict the function of the gene and maybe study the interaction between genes and proteins. Let's concentrate on the prediction of genes on a genome. How can we find genes using,of course, algorithms? That's what we call genome annotation, the prediction of gene location and the prediction ofthe function of the genes, of the protein coded by the genes. A typical bacterial genome like the E. coli genome is four by five megabases and is the support of 4,500 genes. A ...
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le (5m36s)

3.9. Benchmarking the prediction methods

It is necessary to underline that gene predictors produce predictions. Predictions mean that you have no guarantees that the coding sequences, the coding regions,the genes you get when applying your algorithm, are true genes, thatis genes which have a biological existence. Only experimental analysiscan confirm or infirm your predictions. Nevertheless it is interesting and also important to be able to evaluate your algorithm, thisis the role of benchmarking. Benchmarking means measuring the capacity of your algorithm to produce good predictions. How can we make thiskind of measurement? We need a reference, an idealreference would be a genome which is well annotated and for whichall of the annotations have been confirmed through ...
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le (5m14s)

3.2. A simple algorithm for gene prediction

Based on the principle we statedin the last session, we will now write in pseudo code a firstalgorithm for locating genes on a bacterial genome. Remember first how this algorithm should work, we first need to find two consecutive stop triplets in the same phase, same phase meansthe number of letters between these two stop triplets might bea multiple of three so that this sequence here can be divided into triplets. This is called an open reading frame. Once we have an open reading framewe look for the start triplet which is situated leftmost onthe open reading frame and we declare, we make the hypothesis that thisis a coding ...
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