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le (5m49s)

## 1.4. What is an algorithm?

We have seen that a genomic textcan be indeed a very long sequence of characters. And to interpret this sequence of characters, we will need to use computers. Using computers means writing program. Writing program means designing first algorithm. So, let's see what an algorithm is. An algorithm is a series of operationsto be executed by a computer, but maybe also executed by ahuman, for solving a problem.  In the first algorithm we will study in this session and next one, the problem will be to count the number of different of the four different nucleotides which appeared in the sequence. It's a sequence of operations. You may say that in ...
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le (5m51s)

## 2.5. Implementing the genetic code

Remember we were designing our translation algorithm and since we are a bit lazy, we decided to make the hypothesis that there was the adequate function forimplementing the genetic code. It's now time to see this lookupfunction but just before that come back on this condition herewhich is a bit more complex than the first attempt in writing the algorithm. Here you see the keyword OR, itmeans that this condition is true if this one is true or thisone is true or this one is true. Why do we need this morecomplex condition? Imagine our sequence and there washere the last triplet we translated. Now we increase our index ...
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le (5m54s)

## 2.3. The genetic code

Genes code for proteins. What is the correspondence betweenthe genes, DNA sequences, and the structure of proteins? The correspondence isthe genetic code. Proteins have indeedsequences of amino acids. There are 20 amino acidsin the living world. They can be named by a single letter,3 letters or their full name. It means that a protein can berepresented by a sequence of letters in a 20 letter alphabet. Let's come back again on thiscorrespondence between gene and protein. Genes are regions of DNA. These regions are first transcribedinto RNA and then RNA into proteins. And proteins’ sequences of aminoacids fold into 3D structures. Like here, some helixes. Translation is the process whichgoes from RNA to ...
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