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le (4m55s)

4.1. How to predict gene/protein functions?

Last week we have seen that annotating a genome means first locating the genes on the DNA sequences that is the genes, the region coding for proteins. But this is indeed the first step,the next very important step is to be able to predict thefunctions of the genes. That is more correctly, the function of the protein coded by the genes. How can we predict thisgene or function protein? It is essentially based on thefact that we will retrieve genes or protein for which the sequenceis similar and for which we know the function. So we will seehow we can measure and compute the similarity between DNA or protein ...
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le (4m59s)

Using more than two microphones

Part 3 : Sound-Source Localization3.1. Time difference of arrival (TDOA)3.2. Estimation of TDOA by cross-correlation3.3. Estimation of TDOA in the spectral domain3.4. The geometry of two microphones3.5. Direction of arrival3.6. Using more than two microphones3.7. Embedding the microphones in a robot head3.8. Learning a sound propagation model3.9. Predicting direction of a sound with a robot head3.10. Example of sound direction estimation
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le (4m59s)

L’eau et le corps. Soins et hygiène : toute une Histoire ! (Partie 3)

À l’occasion de la Fête de la Science, le laboratoire Orient et Méditerranée propose un café des sciences qui réunit les chercheurs et le public autour d’un sujet de recherche mené par les membres du laboratoire. Les rapports qui existent entre l’eau et l’hygiène et les soins du corps sont liés à tous les instants de la vie de nos sociétés modernes. Mais qu’en était-il dans les civilisations qui se sont succédé depuis l’Antiquité ?Le café des sciences, dans un premier temps, brosse un panorama des connaissances ...
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le (4m59s)

2.2. Genes: from Mendel to molecular biology

The notion of gene emerged withthe works of Gregor Mendel. Mendel studied the inheritance on some traits like the shape of pea plant seeds,through generations. He stated the famous laws of inheritance which, by the way, were rediscovered 50 years later. The important thing here tounderline is that these concepts of inheritance of genes and so on were very abstract. No physical supports ofthese genes were clarified. So, it's something which appearedlater through molecular biology. We now know that genes are thoseregions of DNA which code the information used by the cell to produce proteins. And, this is what Francis Crick stated as the central dogma of molecular biology. One gene ...
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le (5m0s)

5.4. The UPGMA algorithm

We know how to fill an array with the values of the distances between sequences, pairs of sequences which are available in the file. This array of distances will be the input of our algorithm for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. The name of this algorithm israther complicated but the method itself is rather simple,too simple indeed. We will see that. The name standsfor Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean, wewill understand these terms along the presentationof the algorithm. The algorithm starts withan array of distances. Let's take this very simpleexample, it implies seven species and here we have the values of thedistances between these different sequences associated with a species. As you ...
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