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le (5m57s)

1. Describing resources

In this second part we will focus on RDF. RDF is the first brick of the Semantic Web Standards Stack and comprises both a model and several serialization syntaxes, to publish data about anything on the Web. It enables anyone to describe resources, in particular Web resources, for instance indicating the author, the creation date, the title, the broadcasting rights of a film. RDF is for the Web of Data what  HTML was for the documentary Web in its initial metaphor: the language in which one can describe, represent and link resources to be exchanged ...
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le (5m55s)

Predicting direction of a sound with a robot head

Part 3 : Sound-Source Localization3.1. Time difference of arrival (TDOA)3.2. Estimation of TDOA by cross-correlation3.3. Estimation of TDOA in the spectral domain3.4. The geometry of two microphones3.5. Direction of arrival3.6. Using more than two microphones3.7. Embedding the microphones in a robot head3.8. Learning a sound propagation model3.9. Predicting direction of a sound with a robot head3.10. Example of sound direction estimation
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le (5m54s)

2.3. The genetic code

Genes code for proteins. What is the correspondence betweenthe genes, DNA sequences, and the structure of proteins? The correspondence isthe genetic code. Proteins have indeedsequences of amino acids. There are 20 amino acidsin the living world. They can be named by a single letter,3 letters or their full name. It means that a protein can berepresented by a sequence of letters in a 20 letter alphabet. Let's come back again on thiscorrespondence between gene and protein. Genes are regions of DNA. These regions are first transcribedinto RNA and then RNA into proteins. And proteins’ sequences of aminoacids fold into 3D structures. Like here, some helixes. Translation is the process whichgoes from RNA to ...
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Témoignages

le (5m54s)

Interview de Claudine Noguera

L'Institut des Nanosciences de Paris a été créé en janvier 2005 à partir de quatre laboratoires de physique de la matière condensée. Il réunit 200 personnes dont une centaine de chercheurs permanents et une cinquantaine de personnels techniques, avec une triple tutelle : le CNRS, l'université Pierre et Marie Curie – Paris 6 et l'université Denis Diderot-Paris 7. Générique Claudine Noguera Directrice de l'Institut des Nanosciences de Paris Copywright Studio vidéo Université ...
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le (5m53s)

5.5. Quand les différences sont trompeuses

Il y a plusieurs raisons pour lesquelles la méthode UPGMA, que nous venons de voir, se révèle simpliste. L'une des raisons par exemple, c'est pourquoi quand on recalcule les distances, quand on a groupé deux espèces et construit un nouveau noeud, pourquoi recalcule-t-on les distances sur la base d'une moyenne ? Difficile à justifier d'un point de vue biologique, mais la méthode est simple. Mais peut-être que la critique la plus forte provient du fait que nous nous appuyons sur des distances qui sont calculées sur les séquences, et nous allons voir que ce calcul-là tend à sous-estimer le nombre ...
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le (5m51s)

1.2. Introduction II - Coding Theory

In this session, we will give a brief introduction to Coding Theory. Claude Shannon's paper from 1948 entitled "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" gave birth to the disciplines of Information Theory and Coding Theory. The main goal of these disciplines is efficient transfer of reliable information. To be efficient, the transfer of information must not require a big amount of time and effort.  To be reliable, the transmitted and received data must resemble. However, during the transmission over a noisy channel, the information will be damaged. So, it has become necessary to develop ways of detecting when an error has ...
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le (5m51s)

2.5. Implementing the genetic code

Remember we were designing our translation algorithm and since we are a bit lazy, we decided to make the hypothesis that there was the adequate function forimplementing the genetic code. It's now time to see this lookupfunction but just before that come back on this condition herewhich is a bit more complex than the first attempt in writing the algorithm. Here you see the keyword OR, itmeans that this condition is true if this one is true or thisone is true or this one is true. Why do we need this morecomplex condition? Imagine our sequence and there washere the last triplet we translated. Now we increase our index ...
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