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Nombre de programmes trouvés : 875
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le (24m53s)

Flipping the Hierarchy of Evidence ?

Flipping the Hierarchy of Evidence ? : Rituals of Inversion and Subversion in the Inclusion of Qualitative Research in WHO GuidelinesEvidence-based medicine (EBM)—and its hallmark method, meta-analysis—have enjoyed rapidly increasing visibility and legitimacy since the early 1990s.  The many assumptions of EBM—that valid, universal knowledge can be produced, that knowledge synthesis can be rigorous and transparent, and that these syntheses will slot neatly into policy and practice—have come to appear self-evident.  The rhetoric of “evidence-based” practice frames evidence synthesis as both common sense, with respect to orthodox scientific method, and, paradoxically, a radical break with a past practice steeped in ...
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le (22m24s)

Preuves incertaines : échelles, corps et environnements dans les sciences de l’obésité

Uncertain evidence: scales, bodies and environments in obesity science This paper examines the uncertainties raised by flows operating between the production of evidence and the making of policy in the field of nutrition. Public health initiatives have been launched worldwide in the wake of the 21st century to tackle non-communicable, chronic disease associated with high body mass indexes. Although the causes and means of calculating the rising rates of obesity are contested and uncertain, obesity is often characterised as a disease or epidemic. Given this context of uncertainty concerning how to qualify and circumscribe the “problem,” let alone define its aetiology, ...
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le (29m9s)

Experimental Communities: Mediating locality in clinical trial sites in South Africa

Experimental Communities: Mediating locality in clinical trial sites in South AfricaMore than twenty years into the HIV epidemic in South Africa, the impacts of HIV/AIDS and other diseases, and the research and interventions they have mobilised, have reconfigured many elements of social life for South Africans. At this moment, however, much seems to be shifting as approaches to both HIV prevention and care have become increasingly biomedical, and as large populations are surveyed, tested, and enrolled in complex and costly medical regimes. Some researchers have referred to this phenomenon, in particular as “the greatest public health experiment in Africa,” a ...
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le (28m39s)

Experimentality, locality, and the gut: Treatment and the internal frontiers of the body

Experimentality, locality, and the gut: Treatment and the internal frontiers of the bodyThe paper examines the emerging production of a standardised body of knowledge concerning gut functioning in the context of a clinical trial of HIV Treatment as Prevention (TasP) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Drawing on fieldwork conducted in and around the surveillance area of a multi-national demographic and health research organisation on the thickly embedded relationships between research subjects, fieldworkers, scientists, and other social actors, the paper takes as its setting the field of knowledge production emerging from the pilot phase of the TasP trial and of the other ...
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le (24m14s)

Entre gouvernement et subjectivation : le recrutement des sujets de recherche en cancérologie

Between government and subjectivation : the recruitment of subjects in cancer clinical research Clinical trials are a core practice of oncology, which is marked by a « culture of experiment » (Löwy, 2002). Medical oncology could even be viewed as a specialty directly derived from the emergence of this « new style of practice » (Keating et Cambrosio, 2012). In this context of an ever increasing number of cancer clinical trials, there is a real need for sick bodies available to experiments. Recruitment of patients in hospitals wards is therefore a key step in the research process. However, should one consider ...
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le (1h31m4s)

Les usages de l’EBM du local au global

Vitor Simonis Richter“Births and data: artifacts and mediations in the everyday practices of the production of population in Porto Alegre, Brazil.” Maud Gelly “Les armes de la critique et la critique par les preuves dans la mobilisation associative pour le dépistage ‘communautaire’ du sida (France 2005-2012).” Leonardo Valenzuela “The battle of the green men: on the morality of the body’s degradation.”
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le (25m39s)

Gaborone, Botswana : la constitution d’un site attractif pour la recherche sur les antirétroviraux

Gaborone, Botswana : constitution of an attractive site for AIDS research : between the production of knowledge and government of populationTransnational biomedical research has played a key role for the expansion of antiretroviral medications in African countries, by providing “evidences” of the feasibility and efficacy of treatments and to sustain African health care systems.Through ethnographic research undertaken in Botswana between 2007 and 2009, I analyze the Botswana national antiretroviral program as a temporal and spatial site that was “made” through international biomedical collaboration and national projects.On a theoretical level, I was particularly interested in how different sets of actors described ...
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le (50m43s)

Regulating EBM standards: Guidelines for guideline development

Regulating EBM standards: Guidelines for guideline developmentMy doctoral dissertation is entitled In search of standards that avoid standardization: the production and regulation of evidence based guidelines. Based on document analysis, interviews and (participant) observation of EBM guideline development ‘in action’, it provides ethnographic insight into the question how norms and standards of care are produced in the everyday activities of EBM. EBM guidelines have invoked promises of gold standards based on universal evidence that will rationalize practices, as well as criticism of standards transforming the ‘art’ of medicine into a dehumanized uniformity that deskills professionals and ignores the uniqueness of ...
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le (37m27s)

Le terrain africain dans la construction du calendrier vaccinal français (1970-1990)

Stretching comparisons : African field in French vaccination schedule (1970-1990)During the second half part of the twentieth century, epidemiologists of vaccines and infectious diseases had essentially to deal with the multiplication of vaccines and the layout of inoculation. Their aim was to ensure that this multiplication didn’t threaten the qualities of each vaccine when considered individually  (efficiency, innocuousness and simplicity) – the very qualities that justified the use of vaccines in public health. Vaccination schedules both expressed and enabled temporary the containment of this issue. Beyond epidemiological questions, vaccination schedules also  entailed a range of political and administrative problems. In France, ...
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le (19m58s)

Weighting bodies in the South Pacific: the BMI index in the Kingdom of Tonga

Weighting bodies in the South Pacific: the BMI index in the Kingdom of TongaWeighting bodies in the South Pacific: the BMI index in the Kingdom of TongaAccording to the 2000 WHO Report on Obesity -entitled “Too big to ignore”- the countries registering the highest rates of obesity worldwide are all located in the South Pacific. Among these Pacific Island Countries, the Kingdom of Tonga occupies the fifth position, with 90% of obese females and 48% of obese males. Such position has created a state of alarm within the international health institutions, which indicated the South Pacific region as an “obesogenic ...
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