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Nombre de programmes trouvés : 2713
Conférences

le (54m10s)

Collaborative Filtering: The Wisdom of the Internet

La sagesse collective : principes et mécanismesColloque des 22-23 mai 2008, organisé par l'Institut du Monde Contemporain du Collège de France, sous la direction du Professeur Jon Elster.Intervention de Gloria Origgi.“Internet not only provides the hugest information storage ever, but also the most sophisticated system of information retrieval people have dealt with in the history of culture. Information is evaluated and filtered before reaching its final destination. On Internet, people access content via the evaluations that other people have already left on that content. From search engines to reputational systems such as eBay, Internet is developing as a giant ranking ...
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Conférences

le (59m5s)

The Optimal Design of a Constitution-making Process

La sagesse collective : principes et mécanismesColloque des 22-23 mai 2008, organisé par l'Institut du Monde Contemporain du Collège de France, sous la direction du Professeur Jon Elster.Intervention de Jon Elster.There are two normative questions one might ask about constitutions: What is a good constitution? What is a good constitution-making process? In the paper I mainly focus on the second issue, but also discuss the relation between the two. Important desiderata of a constituent assembly include having a number of delegates that is both large enough to prevent bargaining and small enough to allow for a genuine exchange of views; ...
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Conférences

le (55m42s)

Microfoundations of Collective Wisdom

La sagesse collective : principes et mécanismesColloque des 22-23 mai 2008, organisé par l'Institut du Monde Contemporain du Collège de France, sous la direction du Professeur Jon Elster.Intervention de Scott Page.In this paper, I demonstrate the microfoundations of collective wisdom. I show the benefits and limits of diverse categorizations and show the power of predictive models based on diverse perspectives. The model demonstrates both the potential for the wisdom of crowds and the possibility that the crowd may make systematic mistakes.
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Conférences

le (1h3m46s)

Democratic Reason : The Mechanisms of Collective Intelligence in Politics

La sagesse collective : principes et mécanismesColloque des 22-23 mai 2008, organisé par l'Institut du Monde Contemporain du Collège de France, sous la direction du Professeur Jon Elster.Intervention de Hélène Landemore.In this paper, Landemore argues that democratic institutions can be seen as ways to channel “democratic reason,” or the distributed intelligence of the many—a concept that she builds in part on the insights of the cognitive sciences. She argues that two main democratic mechanisms—the practice of inclusive deliberation (in its direct and indirect versions) and the institution of majority rule (aggregation of judgments through voting)—combine their epistemic properties to maximize ...
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Conférences

le (53m36s)

Majorities Against Utility : Implications of the Failure of the Miracle of Aggregation

La sagesse collective : principes et mécanismesColloque des 22-23 mai 2008, organisé par l'Institut du Monde Contemporain du Collège de France, sous la direction du Professeur Jon Elster.Intervention de Bryan Caplan, George Mason University, 23 mai 2008A surprising conclusion of modern political economy is that democracies with highly ignorant voters can still deliver very good results as long as voters' errors balance each other out. This result is known as the Miracle of Aggregation. This paper begins by reviewing a large body of evidence against this Miracle. Empirically, voters' errors tend to be systematic; they compound rather than cancel.Furthermore, since ...
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Conférences

le (46m58s)

Rational Ignorance and Beyond

La sagesse collective : principes et mécanismesColloque des 22-23 mai 2008, organisé par l'Institut du Monde Contemporain du Collège de France, sous la direction du Professeur Jon Elster.Intervention de Gerry Mackie, University of California, San Diego, 23 mai 2008Economic theories declare that voters in a democracy are rationally ignorant (or worse, irrational) about politics, but that consumers possess perfect information about decisions in the market. Citizens lack competence because an individual voter almost never is pivotal to the outcome of an election (Downs, Brennan), or because of a lowered sense of responsibility in crowds (LeBon, Schumpeter), or because humans intrinsically ...
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Conférences

le (40m23s)

Cheetah Experimental Platform

The open-source Cheetah Experimental Platform (CEP) has been developed at the University of Innsbruck over the last few years for facilitating the execution of empirical studies. In this session I will give an overview of the main capabilities of CEP and explain how it can be extended to suit specific needs.CEP provides components that are frequently used in modeling sessions (i.e., modeling environment, components for training participants, and questionnaires to collect additional information, e.g., demographic data of modelers). The modeling environment is highly configurable, allowing researchers to conduct modeling session with different feature sets (e.g., different modeling elements or tool ...
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Conférences

le (44m53s)

Introduction à l’étude des réseaux (sociaux)

L’explosion de la taille des réseaux tels qu’Internet, Facebook ou Wikipédia offre de nouvelles opportunités d’établir de nouveaux contacts et de partager de l’information et des savoir. Cependant, l’excès d’information pose également problème : sur Facebook, à quels contacts envoyer un message sachant que la plupart des utilisateurs ont plusieurs centaines d’amis ? Quelles pages Wikipédia faut-il lire en priorité pour en apprendre le plus possible sur un sujet donné ? Comment prévenir la propagation d’un virus informatique ? Dans tous ces contextes, acquérir de l’information sur les relations entre entités (pages web, comptes Facebook, ordinateurs ou téléphones reliés à ...
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