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Nombre de programmes trouvés : 352
Entretiens

le (33m41s)

Biosemiotics, Neurosemiotics and Language acquisition

Tatiana CHERNIGOVSKAYA is professor in the Department of General Linguistics and the Department of Medicine at St. Petersburg State University. She is also on faculty at Smolny College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and European University in St. Petersburg. Dr. Chernigovskaya holds doctoral degrees in Human Physiology and Linguistics from Sechenov Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences.Her current research interests include the cerebral basis for linguistic and cognitive functions; language evolution and acquisition; modes of thinking and types of consciousness; artificial intelligence and mental lexicon organization.
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Entretiens

le (1h48m49s)

La sémiotique : un état des lieux

Dans cet entretien, Paul BOUISSAC exprime son scepticisme vis-à-vis des différentes écoles sémiotiques, notamment par rapport à l'école greimassienne dont il est issu, insistant en particulier sur son système de fonctionnement en vase clos. Il évoque également de façon critique l'héritage saussurien, aborde la question de la mémétique ainsi que celle du cirque, thèmes traités à travers un bon nombre de ses ouvrages. Pour en savoir plus, vous pouvez visiter sa page web.Paul BOUISSAC est professeur émérite de l'université de Toronto, Canada. Il est fondateur et éditeur en chef de l' Open Semiotics Resource Center dont le ...
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Conférences

le (49m51s)

The Definition of Morality

Debates about the definition of ‘moral judgment’ and ‘moral rule’ have a venerable history in philosophy. In addition to debating the merits of various proposed definitions, philosophers have also disagreed about what the definition is supposed to do: What counts as getting the definition right? One proposal is that moral rules or moral judgments are a psychological natural kind, and that the correct definition should specify the essential features of this kind. Recently, a number of philosophers and psychologists have suggested that research using the moral / conventional task, first introduced by Elliot Turiel, has uncovered some of the essential ...
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Conférences

le (58m32s)

The Persistence of Moral Disagreement

Moral disagreement is widespread. But would that disagreement persist even under hypothetical idealized conditions in which all parties to a moral debate are rational, impartial and fully informed about the relevant non-moral facts? The answer is important for many moral theories. On some versions of theories in the “ideal observer” tradition, a positive answer entails either moral relativism or moral skepticism, and many contemporary moral realists hold that a negative answer would show that moral realism is false. A number of recent empirical studies of moral judgments in different cultural groups suggest that moral disagreement would indeed persist under idealized ...
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Conférences

le (57m11s)

Egoism vs. Altruism: Deconstructing the Debate

Psychological egoism maintains that all human motivation is ultimately selfish. Though people often desire to help others, egoists maintain that these desires are always instrumental, caused or sustained by the belief that helping will lead to the satisfaction of some self-interested desire. By contrast, psychological altruism maintains that some of our ultimate or non-instrumental desires are not self-interested; their object is the well-being of others. Philosophers from Hobbes to the present have worried that if egoism is true, moral behavior may be threatened, and drastic steps have been proposed to counter this threat. Recently both psychologists and evolutionary biologists lavished ...
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Conférences

le (1h53m59s)

Debunking Morality A Hodgepodge of Multipurpose Kludges

A venerable view, still very much alive in contemporary debates, urges that our spontaneous moral judgments reflect a deep wisdom, except when the processes underlying those judgments are interfered with by morally problematic forces. However, much recent work suggests that we should have a very different view of our spontaneous moral judgments. This work indicates that there is no one psychological system underlying moral judgments. Rather, there is a hodgepodge of different systems that pull in different directions. Moreover, some of these systems were designed to perform cognitive functions that have little to do with morality. When they are co-opted ...
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Conférences

le (0s)

Lecture 2: The Model in Action: Against Moral Nativism

Language, complex tool-use, extensive co-operation between non-relatives; religion and ritual are all distinctive features of the human mind. They seem to be found in no other living primate, and they seem to be features of all human cultures and of most (perhaps all) their members. We are tool-using, talking, co-operating, god-bothering apes. We are also moralising apes: arguably, making moral judgements is both typically human, and unique to humans. Recently, this has been grist for the modular nativist mill; Marc Hauser and John Mikhail (most notably) have explicitly based their models of moral cognition on language. I draw on the ...
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Conférences

le (0s)

Lecture 3: The Model in Action: Social Learning and Its Transformation

Social learning is not unique to our species; we do not differ from other primates through being able to learn from our fellows. But social learning takes a unique form in our species: we can accumulate cognitive capital. Human groups (and perhaps individual humans) inherit informational resources from the previous generation, preserve those resources effectively, sometimes add to them, and transmit them accurately to the next generation. This accumulation of cognitive resources is (i) unique; (ii) is central to the explanation of the adaptation of individual and groups to their environment (as Pete Richerson and Bob Boyd have often stressed); ...
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Conférences

le (0s)

Lecture 4: The Model in Action: Revisiting The Problem of Co-Operation

This session is about the distinctive feedback loops that drove our evolutionary trajectory, and in particular, about the role of co-operation in human evolution. An important theme is that the defection problem, while real and important, has been both over-played and misdescribed. It has been overplayed: understanding how the threat of defection has been contained is not the only challenge to understanding co-operation. It has been misdescribed: in most environments, the defection problem is not one of identification but control. Instead of focusing on defection and its potential costs, I focus on the profit of co-operation, and how that profit ...
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Conférences

le (31m12s)

Hikikomori et taijin kyôfushô / Nicolas Tajan

Hikikomori et taijin kyôfushô / Nicolas Tajan. In Hikikomori : le retrait social des jeunes au Japon, journée d'étude organisée par le Centre d'études japonaise (CEJ, antenne de Toulouse de l'INALCO) et le Laboratoire Cliniques pathologique et interculturelle (LCPI) de l'Université Toulouse II-Le Mirail, 31 janvier 2014.A la fin des années 1970, au Japon, un phénomène nouveau a été décrit comme névrose de retrait (études, emploi, vie sociale), touchant les adolescents et les jeunes adultes -majoritairement de sexe masculin- qui sera qualifié dans les années 80 de hikikomori. Ce terme désigne à la fois le phénomène psychosociologique de retrait ...
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