Gerry Mackie is in the Political Science Department at the University of California, San Diego. His Ph.D. is from the University of Chicago, and he has held positions at the University of Oxford, Australian National University, and University of Notre Dame. His main interest is democratic theory and thought, including contemporary accounts of voting and deliberation. His book, Democracy Defended (2003), defends democratic voting from skeptical attacks by certain interpretations of social choice theory. He also studies social norms and conventions, conceptually and empirically, and advises on the abandonment of harmful social practices such as female genital cutting.