Dr Nicolas Guyot - Phylogenetic and structural evolution of egg antimicrobial proteins and peptides

Réalisation : 23 mars 2021 Mise en ligne : 23 mars 2021
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The avian egg is designed to support the autonomousdevelopment of the chick embryo in the outside environment. It initiallycontains all the nutrients required for embryonic growth and provides efficientphysical and immune protections primarily via the calcified eggshell and thenumerous antimicrobial proteins and peptides. The antimicrobial content of eggshas been shaped during evolution to cope with the microbial pressure andpotential contaminations. These antimicrobials are present within all parts ofthe egg, although they are mostly abundant and active in the egg white and inthe perivitelline layer. Egg antimicrobial molecules show high structural andfunctional diversity, displaying bactericidal or bacteriostatic activities viadifferent but complementary mechanisms (e.g. interaction with bacterial cellswhich further triggers permeabilization and bacterial death, decrease in thebioavailability of nutrients required for microbial growth, inhibition ofmicrobial proteases involved in virulence). Interestingly, some of theseantimicrobials lack orthologs in mammals and are specifically deposited in eggsby the hen during egg formation, which suggests that they have a specific rolein the innate immune protection of the avian egg, or even other biologicalfunctions related to avian reproduction. The presentation will mainly focus ona selected panel of relevant egg antimicrobial proteins and peptides with aparticular emphasis on their structural and phylogenetic features.


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