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Age-related effects on language control and executive control: a behavioral-electrophysiological investigation / Émilie Massa

Réalisation : 19 juin 2017 Mise en ligne : 19 juin 2017
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Age-related effects on language control and executive control: a behavioral-electrophysiological investigation / Émilie Massa, in colloque "Bilingualism vs. monolingualism: a new perspective on limitations to L2 acquisition" organisé par le laboratoire Octogone-Lordat (Université Toulouse 2) sous la responsabilité de Barbara Köpke (UT2J), Holger Hopp (Technische Universität Braunschweig), Tanja Kupisch (Universität Konstanz), Université Toulouse Jean Jaurès, 19-20 juin 2017.

Previousstudies have found a bilingual advantage in non-linguistic executive controltasks for children, young adults and to a lesser extent for older adults(Bialystok, Craik, & Luk, 2008; Calabria, Branzi, Marne, Hernandez, &Costa, 2015; Hernández, Costa, Fuentes, Vivas, & Sebastián-Gallés, 2010;Kousaie & Phillips, 2017) Recently, Paap & Greenberg, (2013) havequestioned the reliability of these findings arguing that the reportedbilingual advantage was nonexistent or restricted to a limited number ofbilingual populations. A current key goal in the bilingual - monolingualcomparison field is to understand the conditions that promote the emergence ofdifferences between bilingual and monolingual during executive control.Studying older bilinguals is an optimal opportunity to understand the impact ofan extensive practice on executive control as executive functions have beenshown to decline with increased age. The aim of the present study is twofold.Firstly we will attempt to describe age- related changes in language control.Secondly, we will investigate the age effect on both language control andgeneral-domain executive control in a monolingual control group in order to understandthe features of bilingual control age-related decline. To this end, we comparedyoung and older bilinguals and monolinguals in an Overt Picture Naming Task. The study included 64 participants, half of whom were dominantbilinguals: 16 French-Italian young adults (mean age = 27), 16 French-Italianolder adults (mean age = 72.8) and their monolingual peers: 16 young adults(mean age = 24,3) and 16 older adults (mean age= 71,2). Interestingly,bilinguals and monolinguals performed the same task while adapted instructionswere used for each group: bilinguals switched between their languages andmonolinguals switched between different tasks conditions (picture naming vs spell only the first letter of eachpicture). Both behavioral (response time) and event-related potentials witchare more sensitive to detect group differences, were collected. Processingdifferences regarding to mixing cost andswitch cost were studied betweenyoung and older bilinguals and compared between young and older monolinguals.Differences in monolingual groups were found on global switch cost and modulation of P200 component. Behavioral andelectrophysiological data show no age effect on global mixing cost and global switchcost in bilinguals (regardless of dominance) suggesting a benefit of beingbilingual on age-related control decline.

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Anglais
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Claire SARAZIN (Réalisation), Université Toulouse-Jean Jaurès-campus Mirail (Production), SCPAM / Université Toulouse-Jean Jaurès-campus Mirail (Publication)
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Tous droits réservés aux auteurs et à l'Université Toulouse Jean Jaurès.
Citer cette ressource:
UT2J. (2017, 19 juin). Age-related effects on language control and executive control: a behavioral-electrophysiological investigation / Émilie Massa. [Vidéo]. Canal-U. https://www.canal-u.tv/96719. (Consultée le 23 mai 2022)
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