Canal-U

Mon compte
DYNADIV

Robert J. Fouser - Cold War Cosmopolitanism and Theorization of “Culture” and of the “Native Speaker” in Foreign Language Education in the United States from 1945-1970


Copier le code pour partager la vidéo :
<div style="position:relative;padding-bottom:56.25%;padding-top:10px;height:0;overflow:hidden;"><iframe src="https://www.canal-u.tv/video/dynadiv/embed.1/robert_j_fouser_cold_war_cosmopolitanism_and_theorization_of_culture_and_of_the_native_speaker_in_foreign_language_education_in_the_united_states_from_1945_1970.62769?width=100%&amp;height=100%" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height: 100%;" width="550" height="306" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen scrolling="no"></iframe></div> Si vous souhaitez partager une séquence, indiquez le début de celle-ci , et copiez le code : h m s
Producteur Canal-U :
DYNADIV
Contacter la chaine
J’aime
Imprimer
partager facebook twitter

Robert J. Fouser - Cold War Cosmopolitanism and Theorization of “Culture” and of the “Native Speaker” in Foreign Language Education in the United States from 1945-1970

In this paper, I will explore the relationship between Cold War cosmopolitanism and theorization of the role of culture and of the “native speaker” in foreign language education from 1945 to 1970. The term “Cold War cosmopolitanism” comes from the research by Klein (2003, 2020) on cultural exchanges between the US and Asian countries during the immediate postwar period. Klein argued that to exert its influence in Asia amid competition with the Soviet Union, the US government promoted cultural exchange, both overtly and covertly, between the US and Asia to strengthen its hand in the competition with the Soviet Union. Similar cultural exchanges were promoted with Western European countries, particularly West Germany and Italy, and throughout Latin America. Cosmopolitanism was promoted to counter the isolationist tendencies that prevailed in the 1920s and 1930s. It also informed the development of more specialized area studies programs in US universities, such as Chinese and Japanese studies, which included language teaching and scholarly exchange.

 

The teaching of foreign languages and cultural exchange were viewed as an essential element in building cosmopolitan solidarity and, from 1946 to 1961, a series of policies, which culminated in the The Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961(Fulbright–Hays Act), were implemented to promote these goals. As the cosmopolitan zeitgeist spread, Audiolingual theorists, such as Charles C. Fries and his protégé Robert Lado, elevated the place of “culture,” which ranges from high culture to material culture to everyday mores, in language teaching. The primacy of the native speaker, defined as an educated speaker of the “standard” variety of language, in Audiolingual theory led to a focus on the native speaker as a repository of culture, particularly as it related to everyday mores and social norms. The importance of the native speaker as a model of spoken language and as a source of cultural knowledge, stimulated efforts to bring learners in contact with native speakers in the US and by sending them abroad for various learning experiences. Examples of these efforts include the development of language houses on US university campuses, study abroad programs, student exchange programs, and teacher exchange programs.

 

Many of the practices established during this period remain an integral part of language education in the US, particularly at the university level.

The research draws on a variety of primary and secondary sources from the period, such as scholarly articles, policy documents, new reports, and professional newsletter articles to show how researchers, practitioners, and policy makers developed and applied theories regarding the importance of culture and the role of the native speakers in the broader project of promoting cosmopolitan solidarity between the US and its allies/client states during the height of the Cold War.

 

Selected References:

 

Coombs, P. H. (1964). The fourth dimension of foreign policy: Educational and cultural affairs. New York: Harper & Row.

 

Fries, C. C. (1945). Teaching and learning English as a foreign language. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

 

Klein, C. (2003). Cold War orientalism: Asia in the middlebrow imagination, 1945-1961. Berkeley, Calif: Univ. of California Press.

 

Klein, C. (2020). Cold war cosmopolitanism: Period style in 1950s Korean cinema. Berkeley, Calif: Univ. of California Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/luminos.85

 

Lado, R. (1964). Language teaching, a scientific approach. New York, McGraw-Hill.

 

Parker, W. R., U.S. National Commission for UNESCO., & United States. (1957). The national interest and foreign languages: A discussion guide and work paper. Washington, D.C: G.P.O.

 

commentaires


Ajouter un commentaire Lire les commentaires
*Les champs suivis d’un astérisque sont obligatoires.
Aucun commentaire sur cette vidéo pour le moment (les commentaires font l’objet d’une modération)
 

Dans la même collection

 Ouverture officielle
 Daniel Coste - Se raconter des histoires ?
 Simon Coffey - “within the consciousness of living men”: Charting conceptions of French learning in England since 1945 and how disciplinary epistemologies have shaped its historiography
 Jennifer Meier - The influence of the zeitgeist on the development of cultural learning in foreign language teaching in Germany from 1945 to the present.
 Polina Shvanyukova - Language Education and Gender Studies: Focus on Italy, 1975 – 2015
 David Bel - La recherche en didactique du FLE en Chine depuis 1949 : Une analyse sociohistorique critique et écosystémique
 LAURENS Véronique - Virages méthodologiques en didactique du FLE, entre tensions, points de ruptures et filiations - LAURENS Véronique
 Marie-Madeleine Bertucci - Propositions pour une étude de la mise en perspective critique de la notion de langue maternelle dans un ensemble de travaux de recherche en didactologie du français langue étrangère / français langue seconde de 1945 à 2015
 Alice Burrows et Clémentine Rubio - Vers une géopolitique des trajectoires enseignantes : circulation des personnes et des concepts
 John DANIELS - Theories informing French language teaching in an English middle school; an autobiographical account.
 Nataliya Yatsenko - Peter Hagboldt en URSS, la réception soviétique des travaux du didacticien américain - Nataliya Yatsenko
 Nicola MCLELLAND - The relationship between institutions, advocacy, research, policymaking, and language learning in the UK since 1945
 David Bel - Quelle(s) histoire(s) pour la didactique du FLE?
 Ying Zhang-Colin et Mariarosaria Gianninoto - La didactique du chinois langue étrangère, entre « théorie d’ensemble et [théorie] des variables » : une réflexion historico-épistémologique
 ZHANG Ge - La culture française dans les manuels de FLE en Chine de 1949 à 2019 : représentation, conception, évolution
 Les enjeux d’universitarisation de la recherche en FLE et didactique des langues - hommage à Robert Galisson (et à quelques autres…)
 Pistis Mfwa Croyance - Les français congolais au fil de l'histoire postcoloniale : quelle orientation didactique ?
 Javier SUSO LÓPEZ - Approche humaniste vs approche scientifique dans la didactique des langues vivantes dans les années 1945-1975
 Arman KARIMI GOUDARZI - L’évolution du français et du FLE en Iran 1979-2015 : Paradoxe d’une révolution islamique et sa révolution culturelle
 Sarah Dietrich-Grappin et Jésabel Robin - La DDL en tant que discipline autonome ? Restitution discursive et enjeux institutionnels dans deux hautes écoles pédagogiques germanophones
 Alper ASLAN - Le DELF (Diplôme d’études en langue française) : un passé sans histoire ?
 Jésabel ROBIN - De la réception en Suisse alémanique de conceptions didactiques élaborées en France: petite histoire des épistémologies (il)légitimées
 Alessandra Keller-Gerber - Des méthodologies en mouvement mais l’acte de parole réflexif, un exercice figé
 Sabine Doff - „With a little help from my friends …“ The dialogue between Foreign Language Education („Fremdsprachendidaktik“) and referential disciplines in Western Germany 1945-1989
 Maxi Pauser - Tertiary Language Teaching and Learning principles: The Case of German L3 at Spanish Universities
 Anke Wegner - La didactique de l´allemand langue seconde en Allemagne : 50 ans de dévéloppement pédagogique et didactique
 Jérémi Sauvage - La signification historique de la crise en phonétique corrective
 Georges Daniel VERONIQUE - Contre l’applicationnisme linguistique, la Didactologie des langues-cultures
 Margaret Bento et Estelle Riquois -L’authenticité : une notion à géométrie variable à travers les méthodologies
 Fontaine Béatrice - La place de l’émotion dans l’apprentissage des langues : quel cheminement en DDL ?
 Pierre Sallé - Créativité et DDL : Le cas des pratiques théâtrales (1970-2015) : Perspectives et enjeux relatifs à la diversité des conceptions
 Synthèse
FMSH
 
Facebook Twitter
Mon Compte