Conférence

Dr Jianbin Wang - Genomes and transcriptomes of the parasitic nematode Ascaris

Réalisation : 30 novembre 2021 Mise en ligne : 30 novembre 2021
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Descriptif

Nematodes of the genus Ascaris are important parasites of humans and swine, and related genera (Parascaris, Toxocara, and Baylisascaris) infect mammals of veterinary interest. Over the last decade, considerable genomic resources have been established for Ascaris, including complete germline and somatic genomes, comprehensive mRNA and small RNA transcriptomes, as well as genome-wide histone and chromatin data. These datasets provide a major resource for studies on the basic biology of these parasites and the host-parasite relationship. Ascaris and its relatives undergo programmed DNA elimination, a highly regulated process where chromosomes are fragmented and portions of the genome are lost in embryonic cells destined to adopt a somatic fate, whereas the genome remains intact in germ cells. Unlike many organisms, Ascaris transcription drives early development beginning prior to pronuclear fusion. Studies on Ascaris demonstrated a complex small RNA network even in the absence of a piRNA pathway. Comparative genomics of these ascarids has provided perspectives on nematode sex chromosome evolution, programmed DNA elimination, and host-parasite coevolution. The genomic resources are enabling comparison of proteins across diverse species, revealing many new potential drug targets that could be used to control these parasitic nematodes. Ongoing work from the research community will further improve the annotation and genomics resources for these important parasites.

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